Pseudo-Julian uses philia in a way similar to Iamblichus. Moreover, should you agree to trust me with my own sentencing and allow me to undergo the punishment that I prefer, my noble friend, I would gladly fasten myself to your tunic, so that I might never for a moment leave your side but be with you always and closely attached to you wherever you are like those two-bodied beings invented in the myths. Unless indeed, in this case also the myths, though they tell us the story in jest, are describing in a veiled way an extraordinary sort of friendship and by that close tie of togetherness express the kinship of soul in both beings.
The bodily images point to a bond of love and longing between master and disciple that are the external manifestation of the inner kinship of soul. Eunapius confirms the atmosphere of love in the Iamblichean circle. He describes the diverse gathering of disciples that Iamblichus attracted and the bond of love, centered on the master, that held the circle together.
For the anonymous author of this letter, Iamblichus is a divine figure, a living savior, someone possessing the erotic magnetism of a true bacchant. The letters are suffused with intense anagogic love and reveal a deep spiritual connection similar to the one that we will find between Proclus and Syrianus later in this paper. And the disciples could never have enough of this pleasure Iamblichus himself portrayed Pythagoras in his Life of Pythagoras as a father figure.
In a very similar way, Hypatia was a mother-figure to her disciple Synesius, who later became bishop of his native North African city of Ptolemais:. I am dictating this letter to you from my bed, but may you receive it in good health, mother, sister, teacher and giver of support in all these troubles. He is tortured more by the lack of tidings from her than from his own misfortunes. His troubles would be cut in half, if he knew that she was doing well:. But now your silence joined the ranks of my other difficulties which have engulfed me. I had to part with my children, my friends and the good-will of everyone.
I had hoped that it alone would always remain with me, more powerful than the degrading blows of my personal fortune and stronger than the downward turn of fate. Synesius discovered how difficult it is to maintain faith in the midst of extreme adversity. In a supreme flight of purified love, he forgets about salvation or damnation and directs his thoughts towards the ultimate goal—union. The following letter is a rare piece of evidence that the bond of love and devotion between master and disciple was believed to extend even beyond death and to culminate in the return of the soul to its original home.
Even though there shall be utter forgetfulness of the dead in Hades lliad 22, , even there I shall remember you, my dear Hypatia. I am breathing an air tainted by the decay of dead bodies. I am waiting to undergo myself the same lot that has befallen so many others, for how can one keep any hope when the sky is obscured by the shadow of birds of prey?. Yet even under these conditions I love this country.
Synesius is torn between two loves: the love for his ravished native Libya, the place of his birth where he sees the tombs of his noble ancestors on one hand, and between the love of wisdom on the other. In his years as bishop, Synesius had felt alone in his native town because he lacked the company of others who practiced philosophy. In this passage, anagogic love represents a devotion to a way of life where one enjoys the uplifting power of association with the advanced philosopher.
He adapts his providential care to the needs of each person upon whom he bestows it:. Similarly, Hermias in his commentary to the Phaedrus presented Socrates as a benefactor with the power to purify souls. I pray that. Lecturing on some text was a standard procedure in the philosophical schools and with some teachers like Plotinus these lectures i. The intense form of anagogic love could even become a form of theurgy. My interest in the Proclus-Syrianus exchange is due to an adjacent passage, not discussed by Sheppard, where Syrianus explains how love starts with divine madness, with love directed towards the physical master and grows in intensity as it becomes transformed into a purely intelligible love.
The art of love turns the young towards us and draws them into a friendship with us. The external relationship between the two is a reflection of that internal relationship. The telestic art theurgy is placed above all because it contains within itself all the others theology, the entire philosophy and the art of love, for it must fasten itself to the other forms of madness in an extreme intensity of love to attain its aim. However, if we are discussing external love alone by itself, having set it apart, then the art of love from this perspective seems inferior to theurgy.
The competing multiplicity of ways to talk about this experience created a terminological debacle that confused even Proclus. Aristotle also wrote an encomium to Plato in which he described his master in language associated with descriptions of divine revelation e. Plato, the visible embodiment of Philia , had made friendship with the Good itself attainable for his disciples.
Sociologists have observed that conversion begins from affection rather than ideology.
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It also shows the continued existence of Parmenides—Ameinias type relationships that depended more on presence and stillness than on the elaborate discursive edifice of the official philosophical schools. It points to a silent stream of devotional relationships that left little or no trace in the written record, but also contributed to the renewal and vitality of the tradition in crucial ways.
According to Phlegon in his work On Longevity he lived one hundred and fifty-seven years; according to the Cretans two hundred and ninety-nine years. Xenophanes of Colophon gives his age as , according to hearsay. He is stated to have been the first who purified houses and fields, and the first who founded temples. Some are found to maintain that he did not go to sleep but withdrew himself 84 for a while, engaged in gathering simples.
There is extant a letter of his to Solon the lawgiver, containing a scheme of government which Minos drew up for the Cretans. But Demetrius of Magnesia, in his work on poets and writers of the same name, endeavours to discredit the letter on the ground that it is late and not written in the Cretan dialect but in Attic, and New Attic too. However, I have found another letter by him which runs as follows:. For if Pisistratus had attacked the Athenians while they were still serfs and before they had good laws, he would have secured power in perpetuity by the enslavement of the citizens.
But even should Pisistratus himself hold down the city, I do not expect that his power will be continued to his children; for it is hard to contrive that men brought up as free men under the best laws should be slaves. But, instead of going on your travels, come quietly to Crete to me; for here you will have no monarch to fear, whereas, if some of his friends should fall in with you while you are travelling about, I fear you may come to some harm.
This is the tenor of the letter. Timaeus mentions him in his second book. Some writers say that the Cretans sacrifice to him as a god; for they say that he had superhuman foresight. For instance, when he saw Munichia, at Athens, he said the Athenians did not know how many evils that place would bring upon them; for, if they did, they would destroy it even if they had to do so with their teeth.
And this he said so long before the event. It is also stated that he was the first to call himself Aeacus; that he foretold to the Lacedaemonians their defeat by the Arcadians; and that he claimed that his soul had passed through many incarnations. And he became old in as many days as he had slept years; for this too is stated by Theopompus. Myronianus in his Parallels declares that the Cretans called him one of the Curetes.
The Lacedaemonians guard his body in their own keeping in obedience to a certain oracle; this is stated by Sosibius the Laconian. There have been two other men named Epimenides, namely, the genealogist and another who wrote in Doric Greek about Rhodes. Pherecydes, the son of Babys, and a native of Syros according to Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers, was a pupil of Pittacus. Theopompus tells us that he was the first who wrote in Greek on nature and the gods.
Many wonderful stories are told about him. He was walking along the beach in Samos and saw a ship running before the wind; he exclaimed that in no long time she would go down, and, even as he watched her, down she went. And as he was drinking water which had been drawn up from a well he predicted that on the third day there would be an earthquake; which came to pass.
And on his way from Olympia he advised Perilaus, his host in Messene, to move thence with all belonging to him; but Perilaus could not be persuaded, and Messene was afterwards taken. He bade the Lacedaemonians set no store by gold or silver, as Theopompus says in his Mirabilia. He told them he had received this command from Heracles in a dream; and the same night Heracles enjoined upon the kings to obey Pherecydes. But some fasten this story upon Pythagoras. Another version is that he came to Delphi and hurled himself down from Mount Corycus.
Andron of Ephesus says that there were two natives of Syros who bore the name of Pherecydes: the one was an astronomer, the other was the son of Babys and a theologian, teacher of Pythagoras. Eratosthenes, however, says that there was only one Pherecydes of Syros, the other Pherecydes being an Athenian and a genealogist. Duris in the second book of his Horae gives the inscription on his tomb as follows: There is also an epigram of my own in the Pherecratean metre: The famous Pherecydes, to whom Syros gave birth, when his former beauty was consumed by vermin, gave orders that he should be taken straight to the Magnesian land in order that he might give victory to the noble Ephesians.
There was an oracle, which he alone knew, enjoining this; and there he died among them. It seems then it is a true tale; if anyone is truly wise, he brings blessings both in his lifetime and when he is no more. Since I received your letter, I have been attacked by disease. I am infested with vermin and subject to a violent fever with shivering fits. I have therefore given instructions to my servants to carry my writing to you after they have buried me. I would like you to publish it, provided that you and the other sages approve of it, and not otherwise. For I myself am not yet satisfied with it.
The facts are not absolutely correct, nor do I claim to have discovered the truth, but merely such things as one who inquires about the gods picks up.
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The rest must be thought out, for mine is all guess-work. As I was more and more weighed down with my malady, I did not permit any of the physicians or my friends to come into the room where I was, but, as they stood before the door and inquired how I was, I thrust my finger through the keyhole and showed them how plague-stricken I was; and I told them to come to-morrow to bury Pherecydes. So much for those who are called the Sages, with whom some writers also class Pisistratus the tyrant. I must now proceed to the philosophers and start with the philosophy of Ionia.
Its founder was Thales, and Anaximander was his pupil. There is the tradition of the malady which proved fatal to Pherecydes cf. Porphyry, Vit. There is also an allusion to the alleged obscurity of the work on the gods which passed current as written by him. Anaximander, 1 the son of Praxiades, was a native of Miletus. He laid down as his principle and element that which is unlimited without defining it as air or water or anything else.
He held that the parts undergo change, but the whole is unchangeable; that the earth, which is of spherical shape, lies in the midst, occupying the place of a centre; that the moon, shining with borrowed light, derives its illumination from the sun; further, that the sun is as large as the earth and consists of the purest fire.
He was the first inventor of the gnomon and set it up for a sundial in Lacedaemon, 3 as is stated by Favorinus in his Miscellaneous History, in order to mark the solstices and the equinoxes; he also constructed clocks to tell the time. He was the first to draw on a map the outline of land and sea, and he constructed a globe as well.
His exposition of his doctrines took the form of a summary which no doubt came into the hands, among others, of Apollodorus of Athens. He says in his Chronology that in the second year of the 58th Olympiad 4 Anaximander was sixty-four, and that he died not long afterwards. Thus he flourished almost at the same time as Polycrates the tyrant of Samos. The difficulty, however, disappears if the statement be taken to refer not to Anaximander but to Pythagoras. Anaximenes, 6 the son of Eurystratus, a native of Miletus, was a pupil of Anaximander.
According to some, he was also a pupil of Parmenides. He took for his first principle air or that which is unlimited. He held that the stars move round the earth but do not go under it. He writes simply and unaffectedly in the Ionic dialect. According to Apollodorus he was contemporary with the taking of Sardis and died in the 63rd Olympiad. There have been two other men named Anaximenes, both of Lampsacus, the one a rhetorician who wrote on the achievements of Alexander, the other, the nephew of the rhetorician, who was a historian.
He went out from the court of his house at night, as was his custom, with his maidservant to view the stars, and, forgetting where he was, as he gazed, he got to the edge of a steep slope and fell over. In such wise have the Milesians lost their astronomer. Let us who were his pupils cherish his memory, and let it be cherished by our children and pupils; and let us not cease to entertain one another with his words.
Let all our discourse begin with a reference to Thales. For the sons of Aeaces work incessant mischief, and Miletus is never without tyrants. The king of the Medes is another terror to us, not indeed so long as we are willing to pay tribute; but the Ionians are on the point of going to war with the Medes to secure their common freedom, and once we are at war we have no more hope of safety.
How then can Anaximenes any longer think of studying the heavens when threatened with destruction or slavery? Meanwhile you find favour with the people of Croton and with the other Greeks in Italy; and pupils come to you even from Sicily. Anaxagoras, 8 the son of Hegesibulus or Eubulus, was a native of Clazomenae. Then, I ween, there is Anaxagoras, a doughty champion, whom they call Mind, because forsooth his was the mind which suddenly woke up and fitted closely together all that had formerly been in a medley of confusion.
He was eminent for wealth and noble birth, and furthermore for magnanimity, in that he gave up his patrimony to his relations. He is said to have been twenty years old at the invasion of Xerxes and to have lived seventy-two years. Apollodorus in his Chronology says that he was born in the 70th Olympiad, 10 and died in the first year of the 88th Olympiad.
He declared the sun to be a mass of red-hot metal and to be larger than the Peloponnesus, though others ascribe this view to Tantalus; he declared that there were dwellings on the moon, and moreover hills and ravines. He took as his principles the homoeomeries or homogeneous molecules; for just as gold consists of fine particles which are called gold-dust, so he held the whole universe to be compounded of minute bodies having parts homogeneous to themselves.
His moving principle was Mind; of bodies, he said, some, like earth, were heavy, occupying the region below, others, light like fire, held the region above, while water and air were intermediate in position. For in this way over the earth, which is flat, the sea sinks down after the moisture has been evaporated by the sun.
In the beginning the stars moved in the sky as in a revolving dome, so that the celestial pole which is always visible was vertically overhead; but subsequently the pole took its inclined position. He held the Milky Way to be a reflection of the light of stars which are not shone upon by the sun; comets to be a conjunction of planets which emit flames; shooting-stars to be a sort of sparks thrown off by the air. Animals were produced from moisture, heat, and an earthy substance; later the species were propagated by generation from one another, males from the right side, females from the left.
There is a story that he predicted the fall of the meteoric stone at Aegospotami, which he said would fall from the sun. Anaxagoras was also the first to publish a book with diagrams. Of the trial of Anaxagoras different accounts are given. Sotion in his Succession of the Philosophers says that he was indicted by Cleon on a charge of impiety, because he declared the sun to be a mass of red-hot metal; that his pupil Pericles defended him, and he was fined five talents and banished.
Satyrus in his Lives says that the prosecutor was Thucydides, the opponent of Pericles, and the charge one of treasonable correspondence with Persia as well as of impiety; and that sentence of death was passed on Anaxagoras by default. That he buried his sons with his own hands is asserted by Demetrius of Phalerum in his work On Old Age. Hermippus in his Lives says that he was confined in the prison pending his execution; that Pericles came forward and asked the people whether they had any fault to find with him in his own public career; to which they replied that they had not.
Let me prevail upon you to release him. Hieronymus in the second book of his Scattered Notes states that Pericles brought him into court so weak and wasted from illness that he owed his acquittal not so much to the merits of his case as to the sympathy of the judges. So much then on the subject of his trial.
He was supposed to have borne Democritus a grudge because he had failed to get into communication with him. And when the magistrates of the city asked if there was anything he would like done for him, he replied that he would like them to grant an annual holiday to the boys in the month in which he died; and the custom is kept up to this day.
So, when he died, the people of Lampsacus gave him honourable burial and placed over his grave the following inscription: There have been three other men who bore the name of Anaxagoras [of whom no other writer gives a complete list]. The first was a rhetorician of the school of Isocrates; the second a sculptor, mentioned by Antigonus; the third a grammarian, pupil of Zenodotus.
For Anaxagoras as astronomer see Sir T. Mausolus ruled over Caria, according to Diodorus, from to The apophthegm is therefore either wrongly attributed to Anaxagoras or, if genuine, must have been uttered on some other occasion. Various dates are suggested by critics; the years of 1 Demotion, archon , 2 Lysistratus, , 3 Diphilus, B. Archelaus, 23 the son of Apollodorus, or as some say of Midon, was a citizen of Athens or of Miletus; he was a pupil of Anaxagoras, who 24 first brought natural philosophy from Ionia to Athens.
Archelaus was the teacher of Socrates. He was called the physicist inasmuch as with him natural philosophy came to an end, as soon as Socrates had introduced ethics. It would seem that Archelaus himself also treated of ethics, for he has discussed laws and goodness and justice; Socrates took the subject from him and, having improved it to the utmost, was regarded as its inventor.
Archelaus laid down that there were two causes of growth or becoming, heat and cold; that living things were produced from slime; and that what is just and what is base depends not upon nature but upon convention. His theory is to this effect. Water is melted by heat and produces on the one hand earth in so far as by the action of fire it sinks and coheres, while on the other hand it generates air in so far as it overflows on all sides.
Hence the earth is confined by the air, and the air by the circumambient fire. Living things, he holds, are generated from the earth when it is heated and throws off slime of the consistency of milk to serve as a sort of nourishment, and in this same way the earth produced man. He was the first who explained the production of sound as being the concussion of the air, and the formation of the sea in hollow places as due to its filtering through the earth.
He declared the sun to be the largest of the heavenly bodies and the universe to be unlimited. There have been three other men who bore the name of Archelaus: the topographer who described the countries traversed by Alexander; the author of a treatise on Natural Curiosities ; and lastly a rhetorician who wrote a handbook on his art. This statement is not really applicable to Archelaus. Clement of Alexandria in Strom. Socrates was the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and of Phaenarete, a midwife, as we read in the Theaetetus of Plato; he was a citizen of Athens and belonged to the deme Alopece.
It was thought that he helped Euripides to make his plays; hence Mnesimachus 25 writes:. This new play of Euripides is The Phrygians ; and Socrates provides the wood for frying. According to some authors he was a pupil of Anaxagoras, and also of Damon, as Alexander states in his Successions of Philosophers. When Anaxagoras was condemned, he became a pupil of Archelaus the physicist; Aristoxenus asserts that Archelaus was very fond of him.
Duris makes him out to have been a slave and to have been employed on stonework, and the draped figures of the Graces on the Acropolis have by some been attributed to him. From these diverged the sculptor, a prater about laws, the enchanter of Greece, inventor of subtle arguments, the sneerer who mocked at fine speeches, half-Attic in his mock humility. He was formidable in public speaking, according to Idomeneus; moreover, as Xenophon tells us, the Thirty forbade him to teach the art of words.
And Aristophanes attacks him in his plays for making the worse appear the better reason. For Favorinus in his Miscellaneous History says Socrates and his pupil Aeschines were the first to teach rhetoric; and this is confirmed by Idomeneus in his work on the Socratic circle. Aristoxenus, the son of Spintharus, says of him that he made money; he would at all events invest sums, collect the interest accruing, and then, when this was expended, put out the principal again.
Demetrius of Byzantium relates that Crito removed him from his workshop and educated him, being struck by his beauty of soul; that he discussed moral questions in the workshops and the market-place, being convinced that the study of nature is no concern of ours; and that he claimed that his inquiries embraced.
Unlike most philosophers, he had no need to travel, except when required to go on an expedition. The rest of his life he stayed at home and engaged all the more keenly in argument with anyone who would converse with him, his aim being not to alter his opinion but to get at the truth. He took care to exercise his body and kept in good condition. At all events he served on the expedition to Amphipolis; and when in the battle of Delium Xenophon had fallen from his horse, he stepped in and saved his life.
For in the general flight of the Athenians he personally retired at his ease, quietly turning round from time to time and ready to defend himself in case he were attacked. Again, he served at Potidaea, whither he had gone by sea, as land communications were interrupted by the war; 32 and while there he is said to have remained a whole night without changing his position, and to have won the prize of valour. But he resigned it to Alcibiades, for whom he cherished the tenderest affection, according to Aristippus in the fourth book of his treatise On the Luxury of the Ancients. Ion of Chios relates that in his youth he visited Samos in the company of Archelaus; and Aristotle that he went to Delphi; he went also to the Isthmus, according to Favorinus in the first book of his Memorabilia.
His strength of will and attachment to the democracy are evident from his refusal to yield to Critias and his colleagues when they ordered him to bring the wealthy Leon of Salamis before them for execution, and further from the fact that he alone voted for the acquittal of the ten generals; and again from the facts that when he had the opportunity to escape from the prison he declined to do so, and that he rebuked his friends for weeping over his fate, and addressed to them his most memorable discourses in the prison.
He was a man of great independence and dignity of character. He showed his contempt for Archelaus of Macedon and Scopas of Cranon and Eurylochus of Larissa by refusing to accept their presents or to go to their court. He was so orderly in his way of life that on several occasions when pestilence broke out in Athens he was the only man who escaped infection. Aristotle says that he married two wives: his first wife was Xanthippe, by whom he had a son, Lamprocles; his second wife was Myrto, the daughter of Aristides the Just, whom he took without a dowry.
By her he had Sophroniscus and Menexenus. Others make Myrto his first wife; while some writers, including Satyrus and Hieronymus of Rhodes, affirm that they were both his wives at the same time. For they say that the Athenians were short of men and, wishing to increase the population, passed a decree permitting a citizen to marry one Athenian woman and have children by another; and that Socrates accordingly did so.
He could afford to despise those who scoffed at him. He prided himself on his plain living, and never asked a fee from anyone. He used to say that he most enjoyed the food which was least in need of condiment, and the drink which made him feel the least hankering for some other drink; and that he was nearest to the gods in that he had the fewest wants. This may be seen from the Comic poets, who in the act of ridiculing him give him high praise. Thus Aristophanes: O man that justly desirest great wisdom, how blessed will be thy life amongst Athenians and Greeks, retentive of memory and thinker that thou art, with endurance of toil for thy character; never art thou weary whether standing or walking, never numb with cold, never hungry for breakfast; from wine and from gross feeding and all other frivolities thou dost turn away.
Ameipsias too, when he puts him on the stage wearing a cloak, says: You come to join us, Socrates, worthiest of a small band and emptiest by far! You are a robust fellow. Where can we get you a proper coat? This disdainful, lofty spirit of his is also noticed by Aristophanes when he says: Because you stalk along the streets, rolling your eyes, and endure, barefoot, many a hardship, and gaze up at us [the clouds]. He showed equal ability in both directions, in persuading and dissuading men; thus, after conversing with Theaetetus about knowledge, he sent him away, as Plato says, fired with a divine impulse; but when Euthyphro had indicted his father for manslaughter, Socrates, after some conversation with him upon piety, diverted him from his purpose.
Lysis, again, he turned, by exhortation, into a most virtuous character. For he had the skill to draw his arguments from facts. And when his son Lamprocles was violently angry with his mother, Socrates made him feel ashamed of himself, as I believe Xenophon has told us. He roused Iphicrates the general to a martial spirit by showing him how the fighting cocks of Midias the barber flapped their wings in defiance of those of Callias. Glauconides demanded that he should be acquired for the state as if he were some pheasant or peacock.
He used to say it was strange that, if you asked a man how many sheep he had, he could easily tell you the precise number; whereas he could not name his friends or say how many he had, so slight was the value he set upon them. Again, when Charmides offered him some slaves in order that he might derive an income from them, he declined the offer; and according to some he scorned the beauty of Alcibiades. He would extol leisure as the best of possessions, according to Xenophon in the Symposium.
There is, he said, only one good, that is, knowledge, and only one evil, that is, ignorance; wealth and good birth bring their possessor no dignity, but on the contrary evil. Moreover, in his old age he learnt to play the lyre, declaring that he saw no absurdity in learning a new accomplishment. As Xenophon relates in the Symposium, it was his regular habit to dance, thinking that such exercise helped to keep the body in good condition. He used to say that his supernatural sign warned him beforehand of the future; that to make a good start was no trifling advantage, but a trifle turned the scale; and that he knew nothing except just the fact of his ignorance.
He said that, when people paid a high price for fruit which had ripened early, they must despair of seeing the fruit ripen at the proper season. For he said it was absurd to make a hue and cry about a slave who could not be found, and to allow virtue to perish in this way. He recommended to the young the constant use of the mirror, to the end that handsome men might acquire a corresponding behaviour, and ugly men conceal their defects by education.
Of the mass of men who do not count he said it was as if some one should object to a single tetradrachm as counterfeit and at the same time let a whole heap made up of just such pieces pass as genuine.
And you do not mind the cackle of geese. These and the like were his words and deeds, to which the Pythian priestess bore testimony when she gave Chaerephon the famous response:. The indictment was brought by Meletus, and the speech was delivered by Polyeuctus, according to Favorinus in his Miscellaneous History. The speech was written by Polycrates the sophist, according to Hermippus; but some say that it was by Anytus.
Lycon the demagogue had made all the needful preparations. Antisthenes in his Successions of Philosophers, and Plato in his Apology , say that there were three accusers, Anytus, Lycon and Meletus; that Anytus was roused to anger on behalf of the craftsmen and politicians, Lycon on behalf of the rhetoricians, Meletus of the poets, all three of which classes had felt the lash of Socrates. Favorinus in the first book of his Memorabilia declares that the speech of Polycrates against Socrates is not authentic; for he mentions the rebuilding of the walls by Conon, which did not take place till six years after the death of Socrates.
And this is the case. He is also guilty of corrupting the youth. The penalty demanded is death. Get down! Eubulides indeed says he offered Sentence of death was passed, with an accession of eighty fresh votes. He was put in prison, and a few days afterwards drank the hemlock, after much noble discourse which Plato records in the Phaedo.
Further, according to some, he composed a paean beginning:. Dionysodorus denies that he wrote the paean. He also composed a fable of Aesop, not very skilfully, beginning: So he was taken from among men; and not long afterwards the Athenians felt such remorse that they shut up the training grounds and gymnasia. They banished the other accusers but put Meletus to death; they honoured Socrates with a bronze statue, the work of Lysippus, which they placed in the hall of processions.
And no sooner did Anytus visit Heraclea than the people of that town expelled him on that very day. Not only in the case of Socrates but in very many others the Athenians repented in this way. For they fined Homer so says Heraclides 45 50 drachmae for a madman, and said Tyrtaeus was beside himself, and they honoured Astydamas before Aeschylus and his brother poets with a bronze statue.
He was born, according to Apollodorus in his Chronology, in the archonship of Apsephion, in the fourth year of the 77th Olympiad, 47 on the 6th day of the month of Thargelion, when the Athenians purify their city, which according to the Delians is the birthday of Artemis. He died in the first year of the 95th Olympiad 48 at the age of seventy.
With this Demetrius of Phalerum agrees; but some say he was sixty when he died. Both were pupils of Anaxagoras, I mean Socrates and Euripides, who was born in the first year of the 75th Olympiad in the archonship of Calliades. In my opinion Socrates discoursed on physics as well as on ethics, since he holds some conversations about providence, even according to Xenophon, who, however, declares that he only discussed ethics. But Plato, after mentioning Anaxagoras and certain other physicists in the Apology, 50 treats for his own part themes which Socrates disowned, although he puts everything into the mouth of Socrates.
Aristotle relates that a magician came from Syria to Athens and, among other evils with which he threatened Socrates, predicted that he would come to a violent end. I have written verses about him too, as follows: He was sharply criticized, according to Aristotle in his third book On Poetry, by a certain Antilochus of Lemnos, and by Antiphon the soothsayer, just as Pythagoras was by Cylon of Croton, or as Homer was assailed in his lifetime by Syagrus, and after his death by Xenophanes of Colophon.
Of those who succeeded him and were called Socratics 52 the chief were Plato, Xenophon, Antisthenes, and of ten names on the traditional list the most distinguished are Aeschines, Phaedo, Euclides, Aristippus. I must first speak of Xenophon; Antisthenes will come afterwards among the Cynics; after Xenophon I shall take the Socratics proper, and so pass on to Plato.
With Plato the ten schools begin: he was himself the founder of the First Academy. This then is the order which I shall follow. Of those who bear the name of Socrates there is one, a historian, who wrote a geographical work upon Argos; another, a Peripatetic philosopher of Bithynia; a third, a poet who wrote epigrams; lastly, Socrates of Cos, who wrote on the names of the gods.
Diogenes himself notices the agreement between Favorinus and Idomeneus of Lampsacus, a much earlier author, for he was a disciple of Epicurus, whom he knew from to B. Communications between Athens and Thrace were, as a rule, made by sea. Moreover, the siege of Potidaea began in B. If any Athenian wished to attend the Isthmian games during the early part of the Peloponnesian war, it was probably safer not to risk the land journey owing to the bitter hostility of the Megarians.
If Philemon wrote them, Socrates cannot have recited them, however well they express his temper. Electra, , may have come into our text from the lost play Auge : cf. Nauck, T. This remarkable assertion may have occurred in one of his dialogues, and was perhaps not meant to be taken seriously.
The division of moral philosophers into ten schools was mentioned above, i. Xenophon, the son of Gryllus, was a citizen of Athens and belonged to the deme Erchia; he was a man of rare modesty and extremely handsome. The story goes that Socrates met him in a narrow passage, and that he stretched out his stick to bar the way, while he inquired where every kind of food was sold. He was the first to take notes of, and to give to the world, the conversation of Socrates, under the title of Memorabilia.
Moreover, he was the first to write a history of philosophers. I would be content to be blind to everything else if I could but gaze on him alone. I am vexed with the night and with sleep because I cannot see Clinias, and most grateful to the day and the sun for showing him to me. He gained the friendship of Cyrus in the following way. He had an intimate friend named Proxenus, a Boeotian, a pupil of Gorgias of Leontini and a friend of Cyrus. Proxenus, while living in Sardis at the court of Cyrus, wrote a letter to Xenophon at Athens, inviting him to come and seek the friendship of Cyrus.
Xenophon showed this letter to Socrates and asked his advice, which was that he should go to Delphi and consult the oracle. Xenophon complied and came into the presence of the god. He inquired, not whether he should go and seek service with Cyrus, but in what way he should do so. For this Socrates blamed him, yet at the same time he advised him to go. On his arrival at the court of Cyrus he became as warmly attached to him as Proxenus himself.
We have his own sufficient narrative of all that happened on the expedition and on the return home. He was, however, at enmity with Meno of Pharsalus, the mercenary general, throughout the expedition, and, by way of abuse, charges him with having a favourite older than himself.
Again, he reproaches one Apollonides with having had his ears bored. After the expedition and the misfortunes which overtook it in Pontus and the treacheries of Seuthes, the king of the Odrysians, he returned to Asia, having enlisted the troops of Cyrus as mercenaries in the service of Agesilaus, the Spartan king, to whom he was devoted beyond measure.
About this time he was banished by the Athenians for siding with Sparta. When he was in Ephesus and had a sum of money, he entrusted one half of it to Megabyzus, the priest of Artemis, to keep until his return, or if he should never return, to apply to the erection of a statue in honour of the goddess. But the other half he sent in votive offerings to Delphi. Next he came to Greece with Agesilaus, who had been recalled to carry on the war against Thebes. And the Lacedaemonians conferred on him a privileged position. He then left Agesilaus and made his way to Scillus, a place in the territory of Elis not far from the city.
According to Demetrius of Magnesia he was accompanied by his wife Philesia, and, in a speech written for the freedman whom Xenophon prosecuted for neglect of duty, Dinarchus mentions that his two sons Gryllus and Diodorus, the Dioscuri as they were called, also went with him. Megabyzus having arrived to attend the festival, Xenophon received from him the deposit of money and bought and dedicated to the goddess an estate with a river running through, which bears the same name Selinus as the river at Ephesus.
And from that time onward he hunted, entertained his friends, and worked at his histories without interruption. Dinarchus, however, asserts that it was the Lacedaemonians who gave him a house and land. At the same time we are told that Phylopidas the Spartan sent to him at Scillus a present of captive slaves from Dardanus, and that he disposed of them as he thought fit, and that the Elians marched against Scillus, and owing to the slowness of the Spartans captured the place, whereupon his sons retired to Lepreum with a few of the servants, while Xenophon himself, who had previously gone to Elis, went next to Lepreum to join his sons, and then made his escape with them from Lepreum to Corinth and took up his abode there.
Meanwhile the Athenians passed a decree to assist Sparta, and Xenophon sent his sons to Athens to serve in the army in defence of Sparta. According to Diocles in his Lives of the Philosophers, they had been trained in Sparta itself. Diodorus came safe out of the battle without performing any distinguished service, and he had a son of the same name Gryllus as his brother.
Gryllus was posted with the cavalry and, in the battle which took place about Mantinea, fought stoutly and fell, as Ephorus relates in his twenty-fifth book, Cephisodorus being in command of the cavalry and Hegesilaus commander-in-chief. In this battle Epaminondas also fell. But afterwards, upon learning that he had fallen gloriously, he replaced the chaplet on his head. Hermippus too, in his Life of Theophrastus, affirms that even Isocrates wrote an encomium on Gryllus.
Timon, however, jeers at Xenophon in the lines: A feeble pair or triad of works, or even a greater number, such as would come from Xenophon or the might of Aeschines, that not unpersuasive writer. Such was his life. He flourished in the fourth year of the 94th Olympiad, 55 and he took part in the expedition of Cyrus in the archonship of Xenaenetus in the year before the death of Socrates. He died, according to Ctesiclides 56 of Athens in his list of archons and Olympic victors, in the first year of the th Olympiad, in the archonship of Callidemides, 57 the year in which Philip, the son of Amyntas, came to the throne of Macedon.
He died at Corinth, as is stated by Demetrius of Magnesia, obviously at an advanced age.
He was a worthy man in general, particularly fond of horses and hunting, an able tactician as is clear from his writings, pious, fond of sacrificing, and an expert in augury from the victims; and he made Socrates his exact model. Demetrius of Magnesia denies that the last of these works is by Xenophon.
There is a tradition that he made Thucydides famous by publishing his history, which was unknown, and which he might have appropriated to his own use. By the sweetness of his narrative he earned the name of the Attic Muse. Hence he and Plato were jealous of each other, as will be stated in the chapter on Plato. There is an epigram of mine on him also: There is another on the circumstances of his death: Albeit the countrymen of Cranaus and Cecrops condemned thee, Xenophon, to exile on account of thy friendship for Cyrus, yet hospitable Corinth welcomed thee, so well content with the delights of that city wast thou, and there didst resolve to take up thy rest.
I would love to see a round-table with Dr. Campbell and Fr. Robert Spitzer on some of these matters. Meditations on the Tarot by Anonymous Valentin Tomberg. An unusually rich excursion into Christian Hermeticism, not to be digested in one bite. Another re-read of a pop classic—the kind of book you find more to like AND more to criticize with each reading. The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene. A staple of modern Catholic fiction. Bad Religion by Ross Douthat. A great collection of essays that speak with real immediacy to the crisis of faith in the modern world.
Fighting the Noonday Devil by R. A short collection of highly entertaining and thought-provoking essays by the editor of First Things. Well, I usually end up skipping five days and then reading great chunks of it, anyhow. I was amazed by its beauty and clarity then. Now, I have a doctorate in theology and I have to say that. Reading it through straight is like exploring the Louvre with the most sophisticated and elegant guide one could find.
The magnificent structure the faith is laid bare and so many nooks and crannies one has overlooked end up being strangely beautiful. Two more books about the way we live now and why so many people feel so rotten amidst such historically anomalous prosperity merit mention. Robert Sirico, the priest with whom I read the Catechism so many years ago, authored Defending the Free Market Regnery , a popular but not simplistic explanation of the philosophical and theological principles behind an economy that is dynamic yet tethered to the rule of law.
He consistently points to the truth that greed is not good and is no necessary part of capitalism rightly construed. To turn from the timely back to the timeless, my spiritual reading has been mostly oldies but goodies. Watching Fr. I picked up her Autobiography again and found that amidst the at times syrupy language, there is something brilliant and adamantine that I had missed the first time I read it.
Fitzgerald deals in lives lived on the social and spiritual margins with both humor and sensitivity. The latter touched me as it is all about a family mired in all the family dysfunction that Gregory, Eberstadt, and Murray write about so elegantly. The six father-abandoned Herdmans take over a church Christmas pageant and are introduced for the first time to the wonder of the Incarnation. Unto you a child is born! Bleak House is ostensibly a mystery story about several deaths and a drama about the bizarre machinations of the 19 th century English Court of Chancery, but it is primarily about relationships and character.
Esther Summerson and John Jarndyce are exemplars of generosity. Especially with Jarndyce, I kept waiting for an ulterior motive to be revealed. A more circuitous and dramatic path to selflessness is taken by Lady Dedlock.
Anagogic Love between Neoplatonic Philosophers and Their Disciples in Late Antiquity
From the standpoint of technique, I was impressed by the subtlety and dexterity with which Dickens brings seemingly unrelated characters together as the story progresses, and how the story is told in several different voices. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is a much different story than Bleak House but equally compelling, exploring the delusion that the purely human can satisfy our deepest yearnings, and the illusion that brilliance and sophistication automatically produce wisdom. The superficiality of the smart set is cunningly depicted by Fitzgerald.
Babcock, Winnifred Eaton
Gatsby seems to recognize the superficiality of his society, and within himself, but is unwilling, or unable, to embark on genuine transformation. The Great Gatsby gave me the sense of a car careening down a mountain, and that a smash-up was inevitable. The book was more than just a chronicle of these Americans. We get to know something about them through their correspondence: their joys and sorrows, triumphs and disappointments.
It was also a history of a 19 th C. Paris that was considered to be the greatest city in the world, but was wracked with revolutions, epidemics, and war. Stages on the Road. Biographical sketches of great Scandinavian saints. Return to the Future. An autobiographical account of her escape, with one of her two sons—the elder fell in the early days of the fighting—from Norway after the Nazi invasion.
Max Picard, The World of Silence. Desperately needed in a stupefied world of noise and utilitarian reduction of people to things. Romano Guardini, The Lord — a brilliant meditation upon our Lord, rejected by the world He came to save, by the great teacher of our own great teacher, Pope Benedict. Boell was a Catholic novelist who served in the war and who made it possible for Germans to confront the madness, the evil, and the suffering of their past. Jacques Maritain , The Peasant of the Garonne.
Whittaker Chambers, Witness. Marilynne Robinson, Home. One of her three novels Gilead , Housekeeping set in a small village in Iowa, exploring the mysteries of sin and Christian forgiveness. Pope Benedict, Jesus of Nazareth. Any of the three volumes. We have been blessed with a holy, humble, and brilliant scholar-pope.
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Anything written by Joseph Ratzinger is worth reading, all the more so since he happens to be the Vicar of Christ. It is less academic but no less scholarly. This is a welcome change for many readers. He is not afraid to confront seeming contradictions in the sacred text with the certainty of faith, to allow professional scholarship to scrutinize passages that lend themselves to multiple interpretations, and to relish in the similarities and differences that characterize a robust hermeneutic of analogy.
He lays bare, for example, the parallelisms that link the apparitions of the angel to Zachariah and Mary, but he does not overlook the differences that contrast the ambivalence of the former with the faith of the latter. These encounters have solidified the mutual admiration of two men passionate about music and hungry for peace. Hopefully they will be soon. Barenboim explains the similarities between performing well as a musician and acting well as a human being.
He does so with a straightforward simplicity that eludes academic estheticians and avoids the mushy romanticism of those who think peace is achievable through music alone. Barenboim is convinced that if we learn to listen to music well, we will better understand who we are, both individually and collectively. Just as counterpoint demands a coordinated and hierarchical order, so too does a well-functioning society.
Rather than merely lament musical illiteracy, Barenboim offers reasons and means to cure it. Listening to Beethoven might also move us to take better care of our planet. The gap is widening between extremists who fight to uphold the rights of every last tree and libertines who are paranoid that any measure to protect the environment will squelch economic growth.
Some consider Scruton a voice crying out in the desert, but his is a voice of reason worth listening to. Demonstrating similar reasonableness is Edward Trimnell, whose book on the Middle East, though five years old, remains an outstanding guide to an enormously complex region. Trimnell primarily wants to convey information, but he also interweaves clearheaded analysis to help the reader assess the aspirations of Middle Eastern countries and reevaluate the fears they provoke in the West. He soft pedals neither totalitarianism nor terrorism nor does he gloss over the broad range of political, religious, and social ideas that make it impossible to homogenize the region.
The book covers antiquity to the modern day but is particularly incisive in its treatment of the latter twentieth-century. The reader is neither weighed down with excessive detail nor titillated by superfluous trivia. The narrative, or several narratives, that Trimnell places on the table have changed the way I read the morning paper. Menaechmi The Twin Brothers , by Plautus. I thought reading this masterpiece would be a delightful grammatical exercise for my Latin students. It was indeed that but so much more.
Plautus taught him how to poke fun at human foibles with utter seriousness. The confusion caused when Menaechmus shows up in Epidamnus searching for his long lost identical twin with the same name is uproariously funny but much more than entertainment. As we watch the plot unfold, we subconsciously grasp how stupid we human beings are. We are duped into thinking and doing ridiculously irrational things at the drop of a hat.
The Menaechmus who actually lives in Epidamnus loathes his wife and dotes on a prostitute named Erotium. All the knots are unraveled when the true identity of each is revealed in the end, and it is Plautus who laughs at us if we think the characters live happily ever after. Shakespeare got the joke almost two millennia later. The timelessness of the message, in addition to the scintillating Latin, persuaded Erasmus to consider Plautus an essential part of any complete education.
Perhaps reintroducing him to high school students today is asking a bit much. But should anyone really graduate without having read The Comedy of Errors? Martin Luther King, Jr. Exciting, well told, great attention to detail.