Viva Cortana, Siri e pure quello di google. Forza con l' innovazione! Te la problematica della manipolazione e dell' uso indiscriminato dei dati altrui tuoi! Sei de coccio :D. Buonanotte e sogni d' oro. E lo potevano fare con Win 8 eh Ti ricordo che si scherzava anche sullo spiare e del tecnocontrollo.
Mario scrive:. Sanno dove sei e dove possono trovarti. O ti riferisci ad uno degli altri ennemila random che mi vengono assegnati dall'anonimizer? Se sanno qualcosa, sanno dove abiti tu: sei tu quello che lascia il router wifi utilizzabile dal primo che passa, non certo io. Uqbar scrive:. Le parole d'ordine? In inglese le chiamano buzzword, e per me hanno una connotazione negativa. Tipo "fuffa". Hai voglia a usare nomi strani come Spartan e Cortana.
Se funzionano bene, vanno bene. Re: Win 10 Se proprio volevi mettere le tile,meglio questa di soluzione nno quella originaria. Nome e cognome scrive:. Mi sa che quelli morti siete voi. Un tabloid sull'informatica. Ecco cosa siete diventati Ecco cosa siete diventati :- Ci mancava il solito nome e cognome con la critica su PI. L'indiano e il leghista quando arrivano? Flame Act scrive:. Re: Sito scadente - Scritto da Quoto e sottoscrivo! Re: Sito scadente - Scritto da: Nome e cognome Mi sa che quelli morti siete voi. Annunziata conta sull'ignoranza del lettore ignoranza che PI ha contribuito a diffondere e quando qualcuno lo mette di fronte alle sue magnagne Qunado si dice la professionalita' Domanda Ma la sicurezza in tutto questo dove la mettono?
Le fughe di info? Come fanno con WIN Ten? Re: Domanda - Scritto da: devil64 Ma la sicurezza in tutto questo dove la mettono? Giusta osservazione. Probabilmente no. E con il tuo router linux based scassato da lizard squad con le dita nel naso ne parliamo? Re: Domanda - Scritto da: maxsix E con il tuo router linux based scassato da lizard squad con le dita nel naso ne parliamo?
Re: Domanda non ho di certo bisogno di portare acqua al mio mulino. I bollettini, invece, sono stati pubblicati dopo 90 giorni come da "politica" del team Project Zero. Te ne devi fare una ragione.
Qualunque cosa. Non parlare di cose che non sai giustoper pavoneggiarti,alla fine succede sempre che le spari grosse. E tu che ci fai qui? Non mi sembra un buon inizio :D. Quanti attacchi ddos hai visto in questi ultimi anni. La risposta te la do io. Tranne ora con Lizard Squad. Tu chiederai come.
Il come sta nello sfruttare i bug famosi e conosciuti come shellshock e heartbleed sommata a qualcosa d'altro che hanno trovato nei vari codici sorgenti. Se ti dico cos'hanno fatto per compensare non ci crederesti, quindi non te lo dico. Mi sono alzato alle 5 e posso permettermi ore di pausa, se permetti. Anche per poter continuare a mantenere i servizi aziendali che do. Siamo sempre da quella, quaquaraqua.
Re: Domanda - Scritto da: maxsix Ti faccio una domanda, vediamo se ci arrivi. Ma c'era un punto interrogativo? Eh certo :D Tranne ora con Lizard Squad. E come mai questi sarebbero diversi dagli altri? Muahahah te l'hanno detto loro? Vogliamo parlare delle comiche che si fanno a CUPertino? Quand'anche ci arrivasse credi veramente che raggiunga una diffusione maggiore di WP e credi veramente che nel frattempo Google rimanga li a guardare e che getti la spunga tanto facilmente?
Pochi o nessuna. Eh certo :D Eh certo. Gli stanno sulle palle certe formamentis.
Monte Disgrazia - Lombardia : commenti » ItaliaDaScoprire
Certo attendiamo una bella rappresaglia. Attento baluba che arriva il link. Questo che stai vedendo sono solo atti dimostrativi Certo se lo dici tu rotfl Ed eccolo qua. Sei un pungiball che inizia ad essere un po' mollaccioso. E mi raccomando, stasera maalox a manetta, per domani. Per te. Stai a vedere che su PI abbiamo avuto la fortuna di conoscere un membro di LizardSquad :D Gli stanno sulle palle certe formamentis. Ma dove? Ti ricordi LulzSec? Sono sconvolto guarda :D Per il resto neanche ti bado. O forse si. Boh ; Gli stanno sulle palle certe formamentis. Cerca Lizard Squad Manifesto.
Veramente sfruttano qualsiasi cosa gli capiti a tiro Non proprio. Questo si applica per qualunque cosa. Hihihihi, sei esaurito. Questo sarebbe un esempio del grande attacco che fa tremare il mondo? Questa cosa la fai quando hai in mano le "chiavi" o il passe-partout universale. L'hai letta almeno la parte in neretto? Continui a non capire. Cosa ti ho detto io su? A cosa mi riferivo su? A loro dei tuoi, miei e chiunque dati non interessa nulla se non per dimostrare di poter fare anche quello.
Mai preso in vitai mia ; In vitai no in vita si. Keep calm and buy a Mac. Poi forse potrai essere tenuto in debita considerazione. Shiba scrive:. Sai benissimo che se il router fosse basato su Darwin la situazione sarebbe la stessa. Re: Domanda - Scritto da: Shiba - Scritto da: maxsix E con il tuo router linux based scassato da lizard squad con le dita nel naso ne parliamo? Copiandoli a man bassa, rinominandoli e rivendendoli a te linaro da 4 schei come OMG semo fighi? Tutto il resto diventa un problema di chi ha comprato. Le piattaforme convergono Scaldate le vostre carte di credito lo store vi aspetta.
Re: convergenza - Scritto da: koboldo Bene, bene. Vai rispondi qui sotto Re: convergenza - Scritto da: maxsix - Scritto da: koboldo Bene, bene. Macaco store? Re: convergenza - Scritto da: koboldo - Scritto da: maxsix - Scritto da: koboldo Bene, bene. Rispondi sulla linea. Re: convergenza - Scritto da: maxsix - Scritto da: koboldo - Scritto da: maxsix - Scritto da: koboldo Bene, bene. Re: convergenza Macaco store?
Mandami l'indirizzo che ti invio una scatola di maloox. MacGeek scrive:. Re: Le "Universal app" A niente. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 rotfl rotfl rotfl. I professionisti con la P maiuscola comprano e usano Mac. Tutto il marmagliume no. PS: Linus Torvalds acconsente. Dopo aver piallato macacos al primo avvio :D. Il marmagliume che sorregge Internet e che sta crollando inesorabilmente sotto i colpi del primo che passa [cit.
Stai parlando di questo si? Dopo aver piallato macacos al primo avvio :DSe mi butti un giro ti dimostro il contrario.
- Italian Exhibitors - Italienische Institut für Außenhandel.
- RADIO PAPAGNOL - Feel your skin!
- ANNIVERSAIRE DE L'ECOLE DE MUSIQUE!
Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 Sii concreto o taci! Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: koboldo Sii concreto o taci! Ma il tuo amico Google potrebbe aiutarti. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 Sempre inconsistente mi raccomando. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: koboldo Sempre inconsistente mi raccomando. Dai aiutino allora. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: Mr. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: maxsix Il marmagliume che sorregge Internet e che sta crollando inesorabilmente sotto i colpi del primo che passa [cit.
Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: Etype - Scritto da: maxsix Il marmagliume che sorregge Internet e che sta crollando inesorabilmente sotto i colpi del primo che passa [cit. Ne vuoi ancora? SCSI, sei ancora in giro si? Prova a comprare un ferro nuovo, forse migliore. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: maxsix Le ho linkate. Non ne ho bisogno ho tutto quello che mi serve ;.
Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: maxsix Non dici niente di nuovo. Definire professionisti "la stampa" mi pare eccessivo. E comunque un pio di anni fa Microsoft ha presentato Azure usando anche un Mac. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: Zucca Vuota - Scritto da: maxsix Non dici niente di nuovo. Sg bbio scrive:. Beh dai, proprio tutti no. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 Chi se lo ricorda il dipendente full-time licenziato per la foto dei G5 entrati a Redmond?
Nessun paradosso, i professionisti usano Macbook Pro o Air. Per ottimi motivi. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 Si nel mondo fatato apple rotfl I professionisti e le aziende si guardano bene dal comprare roba apple,per ovvi motivi ;. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: Etype Si nel mondo fatato apple rotfl I professionisti e le aziende si guardano bene dal comprare roba apple,per ovvi motivi ; Ma come. Ti si dice che alle presentazioni di Google era pieno di MBP.
Ti si dice che Linus torvald usa un Mac. Ti potrei portare in tante aziende italiane dove ci sono solo mac. Capisci la differenza tra te e noi? Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: maxsix Ma come. Nel senso che li lanciano dalla finestra? Ora inizia a metterselo in casa anche la sura Maria danarosa, invero. Ficcatelo in testa. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: maxsix Guarda che non per niente ti ho citato esempi verticali.
Che apple non sta da nessuna parte ; La differenza tra noi del settoresettore ristorazione? Veramente sono pensionato mentecatto ;. Re: la stampa alla presentazione di win 10 - Scritto da: Etype - Scritto da: maxsix Guarda che non per niente ti ho citato esempi verticali. Come scusa? Vedere un reparto di prestampa che sforna lastre 70x con un CTP da 1M di euro e alimentato da 50 postazioni Mac non fa niente? Vedere le ulimissime RM attorniate da Mac per l'elaborazione delle immagini che ti riguardano non fa niente?
E potrei fartene di altri esempi. Appurato questo io non ci riderei molto sopra visti gli usi anche delicati che si fanno. E' la sura maria non un linus torvald qualunque. E le vendite aumentano. Quindi credo proprio che anche stavolta tu abbia cannato. La refrigerazione, un mondo interessante. O magari stendere il ricettario e consolidarlo. O magari standardizzare la produzione.
Le pizzerie a domicilio se ben gestite sono un signor business. E in metropoli ci sono certe pizzerie a domicilio che hanno un reparto IT e un call center dietro per gestire le prenotazioni che tu non hai idea. Logistica, questo mistero. Fosse per me non farei ne' l'una ne' l'altra cosa. La spalla di Etype scrive:. Re: Win 10 ahahahahahahaha. Glassholes 2. E anche con google glass all'inizio erano tutti esaltati e le recensioni tutte positive, poi hanno incominciato a buttare fuori gli utenti da bar e ristoranti in gran parte degli USA.
Izio01 scrive:. Re: Glassholes 2. Il kinect non c'entra proprio un accidente. Re: Sclerosi AUX. Re: Microsoft lo sa - Scritto da Broadly between the 17th and 12th century BC, the Central Po Plain in Northern Italy was characterised by the presence of a dense network of large broadly between 1 and 10 ha settlements with embankments and ditches. These Middle and Recent Bronze Age settlements displayed regular street plans and huts, and a large surrounding embankment and ditch, housed hundreds of inhabitants and engineered a complex system of water management Cremaschi and Pizzi b.
The focus of this thesis on the origins of the terramare starts from a theoretical curiosity. For a more detailed discussion see the extensive historiographical analysis, but especially chapter 5. Influenced by a rather general Anglo-American attention for the situational position of the researcher, we were wondering how this came about. The quest and detours that were considered necessary to find answers to this question made this thesis become a grand tour of Italian Bronze Age studies. At the start it was implicitly assumed that this migrationist and cultural explanation was the result of the culture-historical nature of Italian archaeology, but this presumption was found to be too simplistic.
Some years of intensive collaboration with the Italian proto-historic scientific community and a full immersion in Italian life, made clear that describing Italian archaeology negatively as working within an old-fashioned paradigm is arrogant, and a much more contextual and historical tackling of the problem was necessary. Italian scholars might consider this thesis too theoretical, while their British colleagues might find it too detailed and descriptive. This dissertation on the origins of the terramare, used as a leitmotif to explore the characteristics of Italian Bronze Age studies, is structured on the basis of two main questions and one general concern.
From a migrationist explanation we will gradually move towards an explanation that focusses on local development and Marxist and evolutionary thought. This brings us to a general concern of this dissertation, i. In line with the basic observation that the extant Italian literature on the terramare repeatedly presents the same grand narrative and focusses predominantly on typology, rather than their English colleagues who more frequently discuss the social nature of the communities they study, we will explore how more information about the social aspects of the terramare can be inferred from the available data.
One of the reasons why we focus in this dissertation on the origins of the terramare is the realisation that although more attention has been dedicated to their collapse, a better understanding of their emergence can contribute to a better understanding of their general social organisation. In the next paragraphs we will shortly discuss the structure of this main text and the content of the two additional volumes of this doctoral dissertation.
Indeed, apart from this main volume with eight chapters, there is also a historiographical study and a catalogue in which sites of the BA-BM2 period from the Central Po Plain are systematically discussed, which are part of this PhD. Chapter 1 of this main text volume starts from the observation that in archaeological syntheses, the complexity of a large area and long time span is necessarily reduced. Some aspects of a specific period receive more attention than others, which leads to a reductive view.
It will be argued that for the Bronze Age of Northern Italy a specific outline of the past has repeatedly been presented as well. Under the influence of postmodern tendencies in archaeology, this storyline can be called a grand narrative Knapp ; Pluciennik Instead of simply reproducing this standard history of a clear succession of the colonisation of the Plain, the apogee of the terramare and their collapse in the 12th century BC as is done in nearly all publications on the topic , in this thesis we will critically reconsider it.
A main tenet of this thesis is however that defining Italian archaeology by means of the classical succession of archaeological paradigms is inappropriate and inevitably leads to the arrogant conclusion that Italian Bronze Age studies are somewhat lagging behind compared to cutting-edge Anglo-American archaeology.
As a reaction to this tendency, a contextual approach which combines detailed historiography and an eclectic theoretical approach will be advocated here Bintliff and Pearce b. At the end of chapter 1 we will point out how such detailed historiographical analysis is also necessary to overcome the influential narratives of disciplinary history proposed by Luigi Pigorini and Renato Peroni The way they outlined the history of Italian Bronze Age research Peroni ; Pigorini can be seen as a kind of legitimation for their respective approaches, but have at the same time also determined our views on specific archaeologists and their work Tarantini Important insights and data about the terramare were consequently possibly undeservedly discredited or relegated to oblivion.
Chapter 1 thus extensively explains why a detailed historiographical analysis is deemed necessary; i. This is why the detailed historiographical analysis and the systematic presentation of all BA-BM2 sites of the Central Po Plain catalogue will be presented in two separate volumes, as addenda to the main text. However, such contextual analysis, with due attention to the historical, political, personal, and many other aspects which have influenced the development of this field of study, exceeds the length of a normal thesis chapter.
As mentioned above, the exhaustive historiographical analysis of the research on the origins of the terramare is therefore presented in a separate volume. Each section of chapter 2 corresponds to a section of the long historiographical analysis, to which we systematically refer for more contextual information and specific bibliographic references. Many general ideas for this study are based on the recent innovative work of Massimo Tarantini Tarantini , , , , The extensive historiographical volume — and in parallel chapter 2 — is organised in seven sections.
We will shortly discuss their content in the next pages. This second section explores the first studies of pile-dwelling settlements in the early s, and emphasises how especially naturalists i. Gastaldi and Strobel gave the first impulse to terramare research in the s. It seems however that a first move in this direction occurred with the at first sight insignificant decision of Pellegrino Strobel to go to Argentina between and This naturalist scholar, who had started scientific research on the terramare in the Parma area, thus gave the opportunity to the young Luigi Pigorini and the priest Gaetano Chierici to come to the fore of terramare research.
It is illustrated how Chierici, influenced by Indo-European linguistic studies Conestabile , formulated the first systematic definition of a terramara as an embanked oriented settlement with regular pile-dwelling huts, and inserted them in a migrationist framework Chierici Pigorini succeeded, in comparison to other countries, relatively early to institutionalise Italian Paletnologia and gain further disciplinary independency. Subsequently an overview will be given of the first criticisms to Pigorini.
His monopoly was, however, so decisive that the first serious critiques, formulated by Edoardo Brizio and Giuseppe Sergi , had relatively little impact and limited opposition was observed against the excrescences of his interpretations about the terramare. The end of the Triple Alliance and growing imperialist aspirations in the Eastern Mediterranean led to a growing emphasis of prehistoric links with the Mediterranean, i. While the entire first half of the 20th century and especially the Fascist period has repeatedly been described in negative terms in line with the traditional historiographical views of Peroni and Guidi Guidi , we will argue in this section that it is necessary to view these developments in their specific context.
By discussing into detail the work of Ugo Rellini , Giovanni Patroni , and Pia Laviosa Zambotti it will become clear that the general negative judgement about the quality of their work needs at least to be nuanced. It will be emphasised that this Swedish archaeologist could only write this work leaning on the critiques of Brizio and the discussed archaeologists of the Fascist period Pearce Section 5 discusses the long period between the end of WWII and the so-called revival of terramare studies in the s. Traditional historiographical overviews about terramare research usually depict this period as the long standstill of field research Peroni and Magnani We will argue in this section that this is true insofar as no large excavation projects were executed in the period , but that a series of important developments nevertheless occurred in this period.
First, the Marxist- inspired works of Salvatore Maria Puglisi and Renato Peroni will be discussed because they were to have a decisive impact on Italian Bronze Age studies. The left-wing political context which determined their work was to have a crucial influence upon the social aspects of the terramare grand narrative Guidi Further, an overview is given of the rather smaller steps of research on the palafitte and terramare of Northern Italy during the s — s.
It will be argued that the focus on the structural elements of the terramare and the elaboration of a more detailed typo-chronological framework for these Middle and Recent Bronze Age sites of the Central Po Plain divided in phases and sub-phases constituted the base for the still current terramare grand narrative. The catalogue of the large terramare exhibition at Modena M. In section 7 the research on the terramare between the exhibition and the IIPP conference in Emilia Romagna is discussed.
Nevertheless, new syntheses by Cardarelli Cardarelli c, a , and general overviews M. Chapter 3 is a pivotal chapter of this thesis as it presents the general conclusions of the historiographical analysis and an outline of the questions that are necessary to come to an alternative and more social view on the origins of the terramare.
It will be argued that the general negative historiographical attitude towards Idealism — possibly the result of its association with Fascism Tarantini — may have led to a reluctance to relativistic and openly reflective approaches in Italian archaeology. This may be why grand narratives like that of the terramare were never seriously questioned M. Johnson Secondly, it is emphasised in this chapter that it were the specific necessities of terramare research of the s, i.
Basic archaeological documentation such as the absence or presence of sites i. For various reasons, this explanation of the changes in macro-scale settlement patterns as the actions of other macro-scale patterns is problematic, even though single remarks about the reliability of the observed large-scale patterns or their interpretation have already been made. In the last part of chapter 3 it will be explained how a discussion of the five major problems of this model can lead to an alternative view on the origins of the terramare.
Chapter by chapter it will become clear that the observed macro-scale patterns can also be explained by micro-scale changes and thus lead to an alternative explanation of the emergence of the terramare. All information position, chronology, date of discovery, extension, characteristics, etc. The geographical delineation used for this catalogue are the rivers Mella north of the Po and Nure south of the Po in the West, and the river Adige north of the Po , the Adriatic Sea and symbolically the Rubicon south of the Po in the East.
This resulted in a collection of sites, positioned in the plains of the modern regions of Emilia-Romagna, Lombardy and Veneto. Part II of this thesis thus mainly focusses on the second question we asked ourselves, i. Since the exact content of chapters 4- 8 will be outlined in chapter 3, we provide only a brief sketch of the issues these address here.
Chapter 4 discusses the basis of the chronology of the terramare. Since at the moment two typo-chronological systems are still in use for the Bronze Age of Northern Italy M. Jones Rather, these patterns are a proxy for much more complex processes that are at the moment difficult to understand without further theoretical reflection and analytical analyses. First, the geomorphological differences between the northern and southern Po Plain and general conservation conditions within this area will be illustrated as these have influenced these patterns Castaldini et al.
An important observation is that while BA-BM1 settlements are in general rather small, do seldom display embankments, are positioned in rather lower and more humid areas, and are occupied for a relatively short time span; BM2 settlements are generally larger, do often display embankments and a surrounding ditch, are positioned on higher grounds such as fluvial ridges, are occupied often until the BR. Thirdly, it is analysed whether these characteristics have influenced the archaeological visibility of these settlements and thus the actually known numbers of sites per sub-phase.
It goes without saying that the second category of sites is archaeologically better visible that the first category. Based on an analysis of the discovery dates of most sites and their find conditions, it will further be corroborated that the actual dataset is seriously biased towards terramare sites. A crucial question then is what allowed or urged these Bronze Age people of the Central Po Plain to remain much longer on the same settlement spot than before from the BM2 onwards. In chapter 7 we will explore how changing agricultural techniques might at least partly explain this phenomenon.
Sporadic suggestions about changing agricultural practices, or better the combination of agricultural practices Balista b; Bottazzi and Mutti ; Cattani and Marchesini ; Cremaschi a; Forni ; Tirabassi , have been made by several authors but these are presented in a rather fixed extensive- intensive continuum of agricultural change. It has been supposed that agriculture in the Neolithic and Copper Age was rather itinerant and extensive e. This view on agricultural change rests however on the definition of intensive and extensive based on fallow-length and frequency of cropping in line with the work of Boserup In this chapter 7 we will make clear that a reconsideration of this traditional view on agricultural change is necessary in order to better understand the phenomenon of the origins of the terramare.
In this chapter 7 we explore whether the origins of the terramare can be seen as an evolution from a more intensive small-scale to a more extensive larger-scale agriculture. In line with the work of Halstead and Bogaard, we defend the idea that not the mere presence of the scratch-plough but rather its optimal use in combination with specialised oxen can lead to a series of significant changes.
Jones in which oxen and scratch-plough could have played a pivotal role. By means of a discussion of the available data for possible changes in the use of specialised traction animals, manure, animal husbandry, irrigation and drainage, field or crop rotation, combination of different cereals, etc. It will be argued that in this respect recent archaeobotanical Marchesini et al. In chapter 8 we will attempt to formulate an alternative theoretical framework for the emergence of the terramare based partly on the insights gained in the previous chapters.
Whereas the traditional grand narrative starts from the explanation of macro-scale settlement patterns by the actions of other macro-scale patterns facies , we plea to look for explanations on the micro-scale, i. The coordination of larger infrastructure works for irrigation and drainage, the maintenance of ditches and the construction of embankments, the cohabitation in a larger settlement, increased population density, and the needed collaboration for a more extensive cereal agriculture, etc.
It will be argued that a focus on these social issues will allow for a better integration of new naturalist data and come to a more open reflection about how the terramare locally came into being. This focus on the daily agricultural practices and how these activities were organised at the level of the community Forni and Marcone , moreover allows to bring the at first sight divergent Italian and Anglo-Americana theoretical perspectives closer to each other. At the end of chapter 8 it will be made clear how we can move from a migrationist, cultural explanation towards a local, socio-economic explanation for the origins of the terramare.
This dissertation tackles the issue of the origins of the terramare thus in a main text of 8 chapters and two additional volumes. By these means we hope to cover the many theoretical and methodological aspects of this complex archaeological phenomenon from as many angles as possible. By discussing this historical key question of Italian Bronze Age studies, the present dissertation tries to make a kind of grand tour of North-Italian Bronze Age archaeology. By opening up a large amount of data for the English-language reader and presenting a systematic historiographical overview of the long Italian debate on this topic, it is hoped that a solid basis will be provided for a more nuanced international debate about the emergence of these settlements.
We will try to point out that making these assumptions explicitly is crucial, that these are not necessarily bound to a specific paradigm, but that a thorough theoretical discussion of them is a must in order to formulate more mature archaeological syntheses about larger areas and periods. From the start of prehistoric studies in Italy and the discovery of the terramare to the conference at Bologna From the conference at Bologna to the death of Pigorini.
The development of the teoria pigoriniana and first critiques The negative effects of Idealism? Leopold The long relative standstill of terramare research Introduction and chronology The structures of terramare sites Overviews of sub-regions: Modenese, Bolognese, Romagna, area north of the Po Cremaschi: terramare and their environmental context Terramare and agriculture Summarising the terramare: Peroni and Cardarelli about the socio-economic organisation of the ditched and embanked Middle Bronze Age settlements of the Central Po Plain 6.
Recent developments. Gaetano Chierici and Luigi Pigorini Angelo Colini Robert Munro Basile Modestov Thomas Eric Peet Giovanni Patroni Hendrik Leopold Pia Laviosa Zambotti Roberto Scarani Lawrence Barfield Cascina Remondina BS Milzanello BS Isorella BS Brugneti CR Ostiano CR Cella Dati CR San Pietro in Mendicate CR Campo Fitti CR Lagazzi CR Castellaro del Vho CR Calvatone Fondo Cassio CR Casino Prebenda Parrocchiale CR Fossa Caprara CR Valle d'Oglio MN Valle Bugni MN Campo Boldi MN Campi Placchi MN Breda Cisoni MN Squarzanella MN Casale Zaffanella MN Gerbolina MN Casarole MN Pellizzario MN Baselle MN Campo Osone MN Villa Cappella MN Corte Cinca MN Corte Pastella MN Corte Casale MN Bellanda MN Corte Ponte Vecchio MN Ronchelli MN Colombarina MN Cascina Torchio MN Campo Rigolino 1 MN Campo Rigolino 2 MN Campo Marzio MN Casino Artoni MN Castello MN Corte Mafalda MN Montanara di Curtatone MN Buscoldo — Corte Colombina MN Buscoldo — Fondo Madonnina MN Buscoldo — Serraglio Anghinelli 14 MN Buscoldo — Serraglio Anghinelli 15 MN Buscoldo — Corte Passioncella and Corte Lanzoni Buscoldo - Fondo Castiglione MN Buscoldo - Avalli di Sotto MN Chiara or Chiavica del Papa MN Buscoldo Fondo Canova MN Fondo Lovanio MN There were Friulan songs that we had brought with us from Italy and through them we wanted to express ourselves joyfully to the public.
Some time later, a group came from Italy, Gruppo Focloristico di Lucinico. This group opened our eyes and in only one weekend they taught us seven of their dances and we didn't sleep all weekend, we really took our learning to heart. We also used to organise car rallies. We used to organise dances, movie nights and bowling. All the families with their children come.
We used to make floats for the Carnevale but this year we did not celebrate it. But for the Christmas party we organise a pantomime and we also have a live nativity scene. Usually there is a full course meal accompanied by an Italian orchestra. On occasions, during the parties we would light the fogolar, the central fireplace that is the symbol of the Club.
It is the main characteristic of Friuli and it represents family unity. Therefore, my son and his girlfriend decided to take over the event and did everything. It was a beautiful evening and the majority of the people that attended were young. We used to prepare ten different things and it used to take us days to prepare them but it was very popular. They would go off and do their own thing, they would go out, they wanted to go into the city and all these things… No I don't know what it will be like. We had a passion for coming to the Club. The younger generation doesn't need this club, in fact, we don't have any younger people in the Club they only come when there are celebrations.
I think there is hope to keep the Club alive. Maybe it will be used for private functions and it will be financed by non-members. We would have done anything in order to help and at the same time enjoy it. My husband, for example, used to come here and play cards and I used to come also with my daughters. I remember that we used come and dance and my daughters, who were little, and also the children of my friends used to fall asleep at a certain point in the evening. You could see all these little children sleeping next to the curtains. Therefore we used to put them all next to each other asleep.
I hope that the Club will go on, but I would not know how. Surely not with the same warmth as before because we really had a need for each other. We needed this club; it was our life. I have four children and they also, when they were little, used to dance and did so for many years. Now it's been three years since we have left the dance group because there are not enough numbers and if there are not enough young people then they don't feel like it's worth it.
It is a bit different now because there are more places to go to in the city, bars, cafes, pizzerias. There were only a few places to go to eat pizza or drink coffee and meet. In addition our parents were a bit stricter, we had to always follow them. I see my children…that yes…do come to the Club but don't have that same desire. Unfortunately, nowadays young people have other commitments. She is always busy. After the constitution, in June , of Ente Friuli nel Mondo it was possible to provide an administrative structure to coordinate the activities of the fogolars worldwide and, in general, to assist and bring together Friulans around the world.
Because of the considerable number of Friulan communities, Australia was one of the target countries and the fogolars were founded on this basis. The fogolar, not only provided an immediate support to the migrant but also aimed to preserve Friulian culture and tradition. It was a place which affirmed a sense of belonging and a shared identity. As it was already stated, there are currently nine active fogolars in Australia. After that, other fogolars were created in Melbourne in , in Adelaide in , in Griffith in , in Sydney in , in Perth in , in Canberra in , in Dimbulah in and in New South Wales in I have then retraced the steps of the history of some of these fogolars.
In the second part of the chapter, I underlined the female role in the migration and consequently her contribution in the life of the club. Many were their activities: cooking, cleaning, organizing dinners, competing in sports events but also making choices in the organizing committee. The history of these clubs was the main focus of this chapter, in the following section the present of the fogolars will be under study. At the beginning, when the migrants from Friuli arrived, the Fogolar was a very important meeting point for them.
At their arrival many were the obstacles they had to face. First of all: the barrier of language. This stemmed from the difficulty of communicating with other people who did not speak the same language. There were issues in communicating with institutions such as municipal employees, doctors, police and other daily services.
This often led to a kind of social discrimination where the immigrant was seen as part of a lower social class. The Fogolar, in this sense, was not just a meeting place where they spoke the same language and maintain the traditions, but was a real strategic point where the new migrant could expose problems, uncertainties, ask questions and seek advice or share experiences that will help him in the everyday life.
In many homes, parents tried to speak English with the children because they were afraid that their children would only learn Italian at home, and so their English would not be at the same level as the other boys born in Australia. The other obstacle the migrants had to face was the entrance in the labor market. Therefore, the Fogolar had an important role in helping the new migrants to find the right links with the employers. Today the Fogolar has a completely different role. It is a place where people meet to socialize and keep the traditions.
Unfortunately, the difficulty is to involve young people especially those born here although of Friulian descent to participate in the social life of the Fogolar. First of all, there will be the interview taken by me on the 1 st October to the president of Ente Friuli nel Mondo Pietro Pittaro, who has worked for the Ente for five years now. Then, there will be the interview to Piero Villotta, vice-president of the Ente. This interview was taken by me on the 18 th September The third interview was made in person in June to Giuliana Giavon, secretary of Brisbane's fogolar and Pio Martin, president of Brisbane's fogolar.
The fourth questionnaire was made in person in April to Laura Conte, wife of the former president of the fogolar of Melbourne. The fifth questionnaire was submitted to Miranda Cencigh, treasurer of Sydney's fogolar. The sixth interview was made to Lio Galafassi, president of Canberra's fogolar. The seventh questionnaire was conducted to Massimo Bianco, one of the youngest members in the organizing committee of the fogolars in Australia and secretary of the fogolar of Dimbulah.
I primi friulani sono arrivati in un paese bellissimo ma inospitale, nel senso che sono arrivati in un posto dove non esisteva ancora un'organizzazione statale in grado di dare assistenza a questa gente. L'intelligenza, la voglia di lavorare, l'onesta e il rispetto che contraddistinguono i friulani li ha portati pian piano a diventare piccoli imprenditori poi anche grandi imprenditori. Poi bisogna pensare che i primi emigranti hanno avuto dei discendenti. D'altra parte succede che nascono nuovi fogolars. Molti sono inseriti nel mondo della gastronomia. In Silicon Valley, per esempio, dodici ragazzi friuliani che lavorano come ingegneri alla Apple hanno anche loro sentito l'esigenza di ritrovarsi al di fuori del lavoro e hanno fondato un fogolar.
In Australia, due anni fa abbiamo programmato un incontro dei giovani e abbiamo discusso sui problemi del futuro dei fogolars. In quegli anni l'ente aiutava concretamente coloro che dovevano partire, li aiutavamo a comprare il biglietto a trovare contatti. Sono partiti in molti, comprendendo fino alla quarta generazione si calcola circa due milioni e mezzo di friulani sparsi in tutto il mondo. Noi abbiamo il giornale nostro, dove viene dato molto spazio ai fogolars.
Abbiamo un patrimonio enorme in giro per il mondo. Ci sono altre associazioni di migranti in Friuli: gli sloveni, i giuliani, i triestini e l'E. What was the necessity to start up such association? That's the reason behind the first Fogolars. The migrants who now left Italy are most of all skilled and, thanks to the digital revolution, they are already aware of the issues connected to moving to another country. Most of them are informed about the possibilities and the obstacles they will have to face.
They are unprepared in front of this new migration. It would be very useful for the young Italians to have a place, a community where they can find an actual support. These clubs haven't been able yet to change their initial purpose in order to meet the needs of the new Friulians and Italians that are coming. The time has changed. And so did the migrants.
These clubs should instead welcome and be happy to gather as many young people as they can. They should be revolutionized by this new generation. Moreover, vice-president Villotta makes his own point about the push factors of this new migration. He identifies three major causes: the egoism of certain Italian corporations, the difficulty in setting an individual entrepreneurship and the excessive weight of bureaucracy.
In this new migration, the entrepreneurs have been the first to leave the country and find better opportunities abroad. What would you suggest to a young Italian today? Around the world, Italians are welcomed and known for their talent. At the beginning we were one of the few Italian clubs in Brisbane, so we organized meetings every week because migrants really felt the necessity to meet.
The Fogolar also helped to find work. Now instead, it has mainly a social aspect. Mainly to organize dinner events and to cook traditional dishes. About members. Six times a year. Not many. Around Not much. During big parties like Easter or Festa del Friul, all the family's members participate so there are also kids and teenagers. I think half percent. Once a year there is a meeting with all the representatives of the Fogolars. Very good. We keep contacts by phone with president Pittaro and his secretary Christian.
Through the money collected for the various activities. We have six annual celebrations for the members, then the club committee gathers once a month. In September we usually organize a charity event. To maintain the Friulan culture. We have many women who are volunteers. They are precious for the good organization of the events. They help in the kitchen, help to set the tables, to send the invitations, to clean, to welcome members and more.
About members but few of these are from Friuli. Many times a year. Now it is a moment of decline for the association, mainly because of economic reasons. It would be necessary to attract more young people. About Not much, only few times. Now it has pretty a recreational role. People come here to play games, to socialize but most of us speak English. It is fine. We sometimes contact each other. When Egilberto Martin, the former president, was alive, he was the one who had regular contacts with the Ente but now we have to find someone who can substitute him and keep the link.
Through the membership fee and the money raised for the activities. Pizza pasta nights, dances, cooking classes and holiday events. To maintain the culture of Friuli. Women are the real hinge of the club. The members are but only of these are from Friuli. The meetings are organized many times in a year. There are no plans of improvements. The young members are likely to do other things. The role of the fogolar is changed a lot over the years. Through the money collected for the activities.
Parties, ceremonies, sports competitions and meetings. To maintain the Friulan language and to gather all together. Women have a determinant role in our Friulan society. About 80 members. Three times a year through communication by letter. Yes, even if we don't have many new young members. Considering nowadays situation, not many. Our members are mainly 65 years of age.
Yes, but they don't speak the Friulan language. Through the membership fee, the parties and the lottery 14 What are the main activities of the Club? The Fogolar is a place where people meet to socialize and especially keep the traditions. At the beginning women had an important role. They had the ability to organize the food and cook for a hundred people but they also had the ability to keep people together with relations not only in the framework of the Club but also in the parish.
Women were also more emancipated because had the time to attend English courses to help the family. Today women help marginally and prefer to attend events more than helping in the organization. We are about 70 members from Friuli. When we do dinners we reach or more people with many supporters of Friulian emigrants. For the Fogolar we organize two dinners a year and try to meet young second or third generation migrants who are willing to participate and revive our traditions and togetherness among countrymen.
At the beginning the activities of the Fogolar were fine because the Fogolar was a strategic point for the life of every day so everyone undertook a lot more to support it. Today being people much more independent, the Fogolar is losing its role thus its activities are affected. It must be said that technology and progress have contributed a lot to this decline. Nowadays, work gets more and more free time, however, the improvement can only take place by introducing young second and third generations who feel the call of the traditions of their grandparents.
Only with young families with children could happen an exchange of generations in order to keep the club active. The average age of members is 60 years. There are only very few who have between 35 and 50 years of age. Unfortunately, young people show little interest. First of all, the free time is less and less and then many of them not having had direct contact with Italy and with Friuli because they were born here are not interested in continuing the traditions.
Most of our members are married. Unfortunately widows increase more and more. There is a lot of respect among us, even though there are great distances and few opportunities to see us. Normally we contact us by phone or email. The relationships that our Fogolar has with Ente Friuli nel Mondo are: — General meetings organized by Ente occasionally in Melbourne or Sydney — Communications are frequently kept — The Ente Friuli nel Mondo tries to promote tourism in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia sending flyers to be distributed among the shareholders in Australia. Funding is through the club membership and through lotteries held during dinner ceremonies.
Our goal is to keep contacts of second and third generation of young people from Friuli who for various reasons have lost contact with the Fogolar. These feel the need to join the club only if there are other peers that can make them feel at ease. Being a Fogolar with a small number of members and because the age of the majority of them is advanced the only activities done are two annual meetings where we serve a dinner of traditional dishes and the music of Friuli. Just to briefly conclude this chapter, I would like to underline that these testimonies were interesting to understand the different point of views of the main figures involved in the study.
I do feel to specify that the questionnaire was submitted in April to each of the nine fogolars present in Australia but only five out of nine answered. This constitutes an information because from this lack of answers it is evident that there is also a lack of attention by these fogolars. These associations are worried because there is not happening a generational change. There are few young people who show interest in continuing the activities of these social clubs. What precautions do the Fogolars take in this regard? As we will see in the following section, some of the clubs tried and still are trying to attract young members but it is evident that the ancient role of the Fogolar should be changed in order to readjust to the new generation.
The children of the first migrants from Friuli are more likely interested in other activities. Still, there are many of them who participate and contribute to the life of the fogolar. There is a clear difference between youth participation in the fogolars present in South America compared to those in Australia. In Australia, instead, where the economy is growing at a fast rate, the new generation of migrants do not feel the same need.
The originality and innovativeness of the project has been well understood and appreciated by the major media representatives in the Italian community. In the same event, Piero Genovesi, director of the Italo-Australian Institute, underlined the crucial necessity of attracting the young people in order to preserve a true cultural identity. In this sense, the Blecs presentation was particularly appreciated by young members. Another key event in promoting the association's activity to the young generation was the Conference of young Friulian of Australia, held in Sydney.
The first emigrants from Friuli formed a family, some of them had economic success, established or contributed in the creation of the fogolars. Nowadays, even if the new generations of migrants still feel the need to remember their cultural roots and values, express them in ways more appropriate to the status of people born and raised in Australia. Hence the questions at the conference were: how to define today's young Friulian in Australia? What do they know and remember about the culture of origin?
What do they want to maintain and, in turn, pass on to their children? It was, essentially, an exploratory meeting, the only recommendation to the participants was to be available to a frank and sincere contribution, outside of the traditional schemes. Many other commented the event. Da non friulano parlante mi congratulo con i produttori di Blecs.
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Come navigare l'intemet o visitare le pagine dei social media che dominano la vita dei nostri giorni. Sul conto di Blecs ho un solo commento: brillante! Queste nuove speranze le abbiamo viste all'opera: si faccia posto per loro quanto prima possibile nei quadri dirigenziali. In merito al dvd di "Blecs" nella versione friulano-inglese mi associo ai commenti positivi espressi dai partecipanti e mi congratulo con il regista Massimo Garlatti Costa per la lodevole iniziativa e con l'Ente per il suo fattibile supporto alla produzione.
Another exchange program involves Italian graduate teachers from the University of Udine, in collaboration with CoAsIt, to work for six months as language assistants in schools in Victoria. In January , five Australian high school students of Friulian background attended a period at Istituto G.
Marchetti at Gemona. In exchange, six months later, five Friulian students visited Melbourne. However, the language exchange and associated programs for young people were not always taken up. In , a national Youth Convention, sponsored by the FVG region and staged by Associazione Giuliani nel Mondo, was attended by about young people coming from all over Australia. Apart from bringing together representatives from various clubs and associations to discuss common concerns, the convention was also a forum where young members were able to express their disappointment in the region's general neglect of Australia's Friulian community.
Another good event for the young members was the organisation of a visit by the Friulian theatre ensemble Teatro incerto who presented two comedies and visited several schools were Italian is taught. In , more than people attended the program Un po' di cultura friulana, a good way to promote Friulian culture in Australia celebrating its intrinsic significance through music and dance with the Coro Furlan and the Canterine del Fogolar. A very popular and successful project especially suitable for young members is the course of the art of mosaics run annually over two weeks by the Scuola Mosaicisti del Friuli of Spilimbergo in conjunction with the Ente Friuli nel Mondo.
Apart from the class work, the course includes visits to the region's better known archaeological sites of Aquileia, Grado and Cividale where mosaics, dating back to the first and second century, can be admired and studied. To better understand how this activity was significant to young members, in the following passage we can read the testimony of Monique Romanin, one of the girls that attended the seminar: For two weeks in September, , I had one of the most amazing learning experiences when I traveled to Spilimbergo to attend the Scuola di Mosaico.
I was one of the lucky 12 from world that was selected. There were six from Argentina, three from Brazil, one Canadian and two from Australia. We all spoke our different languages, however the common language spoken and understood amongst the students was Italian and some furlan. We stayed at the Pensione Consul in the middle of the Mosaic-filled town of Spilimbergo. Signore Gerussi, the head of the school, along with the President of the school, greeted all the students on the first day. We were introduced to our teacher; Irene, who had been teaching Mosaic in South Africa. We were given a tour of the school and shown all the work of the students of previous years.
The school over the years has grown, and all the terrazzo and mosaic work had been done by students and teachers of the school. The first week of the course, we worked on our own piece to take home with us and the final week, we all worked on one group piece. This final piece was to signify our group of 12 and present it to the school as a gift. In our two weeks, Signore Gerussi and his family and "Friuli del Mondo" took us around Friuli to show us opera di mosaic from the masters.
We were treated to a traditional Friulano meal Orzotto, carzons, muset, brovada, polenta and frico.
Sabato, 27 Novembre, 2010
As well to a beautiful home cooked meal by Signore Gerussi's wife. Not only did I gain valuable knowledge on how to mosaic correctly, l met other wonderful friulani from around the world. I will be forever grateful for this experience. Relazione annuale Fogolar Melbourne Much of these youth policies are then left to each single fogolar and their interest in it. As we will analyze in the following part, Melbourne's fogolar did and still does a lot in trying to involve, as much as they can, the young members.
Fogolar Furlan of Melbourne — a good example of youth policy As already mentioned, the fogolar of Melbourne, was the second fogolar opened in Australia. From the very beginning, thanks to many youth policies, the fogolar was concerned to involve the younger generation. For this purpose, a Younger Set group was formed in to organize activities that would interest young Friulains and involve them in the life of the club. All the members were between fifteen and twenty-five years of age. The activities of the Younger Set during the first few years were usually gatherings at the club and included a Show Eve barbecue with proceeds donated to the Spastic Children's Society.
There were also social trips, Christmas Eve functions and other dinner dances for festivities. However, there were tensions between club members and the younger generation, and a lack of space and facilities only exacerbated the problem. It was snubbed and relations became strained as the older generation was seen as not responsive to the needs of the young, or supportive of any new initiatives. Davine For example when the Younger Set committee thoroughly researched and proposed to fund, most of the older members were dismissive of the idea. Sadly, their attitude only helped to alienate many young people who, like their elders, had the club's best interests at heart.
In the years, the contribution of the Younger Set was immeasurable as its enthusiasm enlivened the atmosphere as well as bringing young Friulians together socially in a family atmosphere. One of this young members recalled that: I enjoyed being part of the club. I felt a connection We took the Friulan identity outside We used to go to South Australia, stay with families and compete against the Foglar there in sports.
Several successful functions were held but failed to capture the interest of those who were in their twenties. In , a woman, Angela Boscariol, became President of the Youth Movement and brought many good changes to the associations. Sports days, disco nights, snow trips, movie evenings, bocce and billiard tournaments were very appreciated by the young members as well as the old ones.
However, the issues separating the younger and older generations remained unresolved. As well, while many young Friulians were involved in the sporting activities at the club, the organization and administration were left to the same committed few. In , an Adult Youth Group, associated with the Sports Committee was set up in an effort to revive the interest of young Friulians in their 20s and 30s. Many others were the initiatives taken by the fogolar in order to increase youth involvement in the club. The cultural group often promoted and still does many activities especially suitable for children and teenagers.
In , after some years of discussions, there was held in the club the first performance of the dancers. This event brought back memories to the older members and was a revelation to those younger. The event was successful and was the beginning of a interesting activity, as another member, Lillia Cozzi, stated in this passage: Because those who were in the balletto were teenagers, it was thought [a good idea] to have the younger children learning the dances [as well], so that they could progress, and you could have [different age] groups going all the time.
I was approached by Lily Polesel and Zanet Cargnelli to start what they called the little balletto. We had children from three years to the eldest who were eleven. We used to meet on Friday night. I was fascinated by them and wanted to learn myself. Zanet Cargnelli did the choreography for me by drawing the positions of the dancers on a piece of paper. I would have to interpret these rnarks with whatever music we were able to get and train the children.
There was [also] a little band that sometimes performed live with us or we used tapes, even in the Bourke Street Mail. I learned the dances through teaching. Davine By , interest in the ballet has increased and there were 26 children aged between 4 and 14 who met to practice under the supervision of the choreographer. Many of these are the sons and daughters of the first ballet group. The children's dance group is supported by parents and relatives who enjoy seeing their descendants bring to life a part of their cultural heritage.
There is also a conviction that the balletto can help the fogolar's revival by bringing young people together. Born in , the choir has always kept alive the traditional songs of the homeland. In , there were 29 members of which on-third were young and have never sung in a choir before. Not all of them were Friulan but the younger group was passionate about the craft and eager to learn from the more experienced members.
The sports committee — Sport as a connection between the Fogolar and the young generation Sport has always played a crucial role in attracting teenagers and young adults. Its inner power in gathering many young people together is indisputable. Therefore, many fogolars have always tried to provide their members with sports teams and facilities.
Soccer teams, basketball teams, bowls team, AFL teams have been created in all of the major fogolar in Australia. In this way, the old members can count on the attracting factor that sport has for the young members. In these sense, the fogolar of Melbourne, very concerned for the future of its institution, has always offered young members many sports from which to choose. Moreover, a proper sports committee was created in order to coordinate the activities of the various sports played at the Fogolar Furlan.
In the mid s, when the Furlan Youth Movement was suppressed, the sports committee, with Edi Martin as chairman, took over its functions. Even if the amount was not huge, it assisted the implementation of the commitment of the Fogolar to improve the sports infrastructures: two netball courts and a kiosk were constructed and the basketball courts were re-surfaced. One of the main activities of the committee was that of organising the interstate Fogolar Furlan' sports weekend held each October, a competition among the other Fogolars' representatives.
Various are the sports that gather most of all the youngest members of the Club: netball, basketball, tennis, squash, golf, billiards and snooker.
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Inspired by the visit, some members decided to establish a soccer team at the Fogolar and, in , the Udinese Soccer Club was formed with Gino Martin as president. Players were recruited and, by the following year, the team had been promoted from Division 4 to Division 2 in its league. Because the soccer ground was unfinished, the club held a series of dinner dances in order to raise money to complete the works.